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|Full Name||Louis Philippe d'Orleans|
|Who||King of France|
|Birth Date||October 6, 1773|
|Death Date||August 26, 1850|
|Died||Claremont, Surrey, England, UK|
|Cause of Death||old age|
|Father||Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orleans|
|Mother||Louise Marie Adelaide de Bourbon|
|Spouse||Maria Amalia of Naples & Sicily|
Antoine Philippe, Duke of Montpensier
Adelaide of Orleans
Louis Charles, Count of Beaujolais
Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orleans
Louis, Duke of Nemours
Henri d'Orleans, Duke of Aumale
Antoine, Duke of Montpensier
As a boy and young man, Philippe's tutor was Stephanie Felicite. She began tutoring him in 1782, when he was 9 years old. They stayed close throughout the years, and she even assisted him in breaking into a prison cell in 1788. Unfortunately, the two had a falling out in 1792, during Philippe's exile. Prior to this, Felicite had been aiding Philippe in staying hidden and finding sanctuary, but at this point they parted ways.
Philippe's military comrades included Louis Alexandre Berthier, Alexandre de Beauharnais, Jacques MacDonald, Louis Nicolas Davout, Nicolas Oudinot, and Charles Francois Dumouriez. Davout would later attempt to intercept Philippe from fleeing France for his protection.
Another of Philippe's fellow military men was Edouard Mortier. The two men stayed comrades many years later, into Philippe's reign, and Mortier eventually died in 1835, protecting Philippe from an assassination attempt.
Philippe was ordered to report to Paris in 1792 to give an account of the Battle at Valmy. He had the interview with Georges Danton, the Minister of Justice, and the two men clashed, resulting in quite a trying meeting. It was so bad that Philippe remembered it as a great story for the rest of his life, and told his children about it.
During his long exile from France, Philippe traveled extensively. He lived in the United States for four years, from 1794 - 1798. During his time there, he met with George Clinton, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and George Washington.
Also during his long exile from France, Philippe traveled to the Bahamas, where he was hosted by Prince Edward, Duke of Kent & Strathearn (who would later become the father of Queen Victoria). Philippe and Edward became longtime friends, and through this, Philippe was able to strike up and maintain a long friendship with British royalty.
Around 1807, while living in England, Philippe and Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom had a romance. He proposed to her in 1808, but Elizabeth was forced to unwillingly turn down his proposal, on the grounds that Philippe was Catholic and also openly despised her mother, Charlotte of Macklenburg-Strelitz.
Philippe openly despised the British queen, Charlotte of Macklenburg-Strelitz.
In 1809, Philippe married Maria Amalia of Naples & Sicily. Through his marriage, he became the son-in-law of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and Maria Carolina of Austria. Philippe and Amalia went on to have ten children together.
Philippe was a friend of Queen Victoria. She visited and stayed with him twice, once in 1843 and again in 1845. She was the first English or British monarch to visit a French monarch since 1520. When Philippe visited Victoria in 1844, he became the first French monarch to visit an English one in all of history. When his life was endangered in the revolutions of 1848, Philippe fled to England, where Victoria offered him protection.
Philippe was a friend of Francois Guizot.
At last in 1815, after decades of exile from his home country, Philippe was allowed to return to France. He then entered the court of his cousin, Louis XVIII of France. However, he did not get along with his cousin the king, and resented how his family was treated. The two royal men were always at odds, and Philippe even supported liberal parties that were against his cousin. When Louis XVIII died in 1824, Philippe was far happier with the new ruler.
Philippe became friendly with Charles X of France, his cousin, when he returned to the French royal court in 1815. After the death of Charles' brother the king in 1824, it was Charles who ascended the throne, and Philippe supported him. However, as time passed in Charles' reign, Philippe came to disagree with more and more of his policies, and became a constant political threat to Charles' reign. In 1830, Philippe led the July Revolution and overthrew Charles X, who was forced to flee into exile. Philippe was crowned as king shortly afterward.
Giuseppe Marco Fieschi planned and led an assassination attempt on Philippe in 1835. He attacked the king with a volley gun that he had built himself - which would later become known as the machine gun. One of the balls grazed Philippe's forehead, but he was otherwise unharmed. 18 people were killed and 22 more were injured. Fieschi was captured and executed by guillotine in 1836.
Victor Hugo was a supporter of Philippe, and he even included favorable references to the king in his book Les Miserables.
How Added - Through his friend Victoria, Queen of England